How our Immune System Works?

Your system is your body’s version of the military: sworn to defend against all who threaten it, both foreign and domestic. It consists of some really interesting soldiers that help make this possible.
Your immune system protects against disease, infection, and helps you recover after an injury. Without a system, our bodies would be easily attacked by bacteria, viruses, parasites, and more. it’s our immune system that keeps us healthy as we sail through a sea of pathogens.
The immune system is a complete system, not one entity. To function well, it requires balance and harmony.
This huge network of cells and tissues is consistently on the lookout for invaders, and once an enemy is spotted, an attack is mounted.
The immune system is spread throughout the body and involves many sorts of cells, organs, proteins, and tissues. Crucially, it can distinguish our tissue from foreign tissue — self from non-self. Dead and faulty cells also are recognized and cleared away by our immune system.

A river of blood and lymph: Our immune system is powered by five liters of blood and lymph. Lymph may be a clear and colorless liquid that passes throughout the tissues of the body. Together, these two fluids transport all particulars of the immune system which makes it possible to do their jobs.

White (knight) cells: Like white knights slaying a dragon, white blood cells get ready for battle at any sign of trouble. There are two different types of white blood cells: Phagocytes and Lymphocytes.
White blood cells also are called leukocytes. They circulate within the body in blood vessels and the lymphatic vessels that parallel the veins and arteries.
White blood cells are on constant patrol and searching for pathogens. once they find a target, they start to multiply and send signals to other cell types to follow the same.

Phagocytes can move through your blood vessels and tissue to ingest or absorb invaders. Phagocytes target organisms that cause disease (or pathogens) and toxins. Toxins are a natural poison produced by some organisms as a sort of protection. Sometimes when a phagocyte has absorbed a pathogen, it sends out a chemical that helps lymphocytes identify what type of pathogen it’s.

Each pathogen carries a particular type of antigen, and every lymphocyte in your body carries antibodies meant to fight the antigens carried by pathogens.

There are three main sorts of lymphocytes within the body: B cells, T cells, and Natural killer cells.

B cells create antibodies that attack bacteria, viruses, and toxins that enter the body.

T cells kill cells within the body that are overtaken by viruses or that became cancerous.

Like T cells, Natural killer cells kill infected or cancerous cells. But rather than producing antibodies, they create a special enzyme, or chemical, that kills the cells.

Your body creates new antibodies whenever it’s infected with any antigen and records it

If the same antigen infects you a second time, your body can quickly make copies of the corresponding antibody to destroy it.
These brave soldiers only live up to a couple of weeks, thus it’s good we have lots of them— one drop of blood can contain up to 25,000 white blood cells.
Your skin is the first layer of defense against external pathogens.
Everyone’s immune system is different but, as a general rule, it becomes stronger during adulthood as, by this point, we’ve been exposed to more pathogens and developed more immunity.
That is why teens and adults tend to urge sick less often than children.
Once an antibody has been produced, its clone remains within the body so that if the same antigen appears again, it can be addressed more quickly.
That is why with some diseases, like chickenpox, you simply catch on once because the body has chickenpox antibody clone stored, ready and waiting to destroy it next time it arrives. this is often called immunity.
There are three sorts of immunity in humans called innate, adaptive, and passive:
Innate immunity
This natural immunity includes the external barriers of our body — the primary line of defense against pathogens — like the skin and mucous membranes of the throat and gut.

Adaptive (acquired) immunity
This protects from pathogens develops as we progress in life. As we are exposed to diseases or get vaccinated, we build up a library of antibodies to different pathogens. this is often sometimes mentioned as immunological memory because our system remembers previous enemies.
Passive immunity
This type of immunity is “borrowed” from another source, but it doesn’t last indefinitely. as an example, a baby receives antibodies from the mother through the placenta before birth and in breast milk following birth
An immunization introduces antigens or weakened pathogens to an individual in a way that the individual doesn’t become sick but still produces antibodies. Because the body saves copies of the antibodies, it’s protected if the threat should reappear later in life.

Myths vs facts

Immune system myth #1: The more active your system is, the healthier you’ll be.

Immune system fact #1: A hyperactive immune reaction is liable for allergies to ordinary nontoxic substances. It also underlies a variety of major diseases, including diabetes, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis. it’s not known why the system malfunctions in people with rheumatoid arthritis.

Immune system myth #2: Eating more than recommended dietary allowance of a vitamin or mineral will improve your system.

Immune system fact #2: There’s no evidence that taking extra amounts of any vitamin will improve your system or protect you if you do not have micronutrient deficiencies. However, older people, who are more likely to possess such deficiencies, should discuss this question with a physician who is well versed in nutrition.

Immune system myth #3: Many vaccines have health risks.

Immune system fact # 3: Nearly everything we do involves some level of risk. The risk of dying in a car accident is one in 6,700. The chance of drowning in the bathtub is one in 840,000. But the risk of reaction from a vaccine is little by comparison: one in a million for diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis, or DTaP vaccine, for instance.

Immune system and age

As we age, our immune reaction capability reduces, A sort of malnutrition that’s surprisingly common even in affluent countries is  “micronutrient malnutrition.” Micronutrient malnutrition – an individual is deficient in some essential vitamins and trace minerals that are obtained from or supplemented by diet are often common in the elderly

Diet and your immune system

Like any fighting force, the system army marches on its stomach. Healthy immune system warriors need good, regular nourishment.

Fever and inflammation are good signs

Having a fever and inflammation are often unpleasant, but they’re signs that your body is doing its job. Fever releases white blood cells,  increases metabolism and stops certain organisms from multiplying.

Inflammation occurs when each damaged cell releases histamines. The histamines cause the cell walls to dilate. This creates the redness, heat, pain, and swelling of inflammation. As a result, your body limits the consequences of the irritant.

Reasons for Immune system disorder

Sleep now or forever hold your peace

Have you been running around like hell, and suddenly end up sick? That’s your immune system getting its revenge.

If you’re not getting quite five hours of sleep at night, your system can become depressed, a bit like you. This leaves you hospitable colds, flu, and infection.

Stress damages your immune system

Your system is prepared for anything you’ll throw at it. But it can only handle so much.

Stress features a significant effect on your system. During stress, a series of events release cortisol, adrenaline, and other stress hormones from the adrenal gland. Together they help your body cope with stress. Normally, cortisol is helpful because it decreases the inflammation in the body that results from the immune responses caused by stress.

But if a person is chronically stressed, stress hormones can affect the way the body functions over time. This increases your risk of health problems, including:

Anxiety, depression, digestive issues, heart disease, sleep disorders, weight gain, problems with memory and concentration

It’s important to find healthy ways to deal with your stress. This will decrease your risk of long-term stress and its related health problems. Some good ways to reduce stress include:

Meditation, yoga, acupuncture, talk therapy, art therapy, exercise, eating healthfully.

Autoimmune disorders

Sometimes your system attacks the tissues within the body, causing disease. This is called autoimmunity.

Most people’s immune systems get used to their own tissue before they’re born. They do this by turning off the cells that would attack them. Autoimmune disorders are when the body mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. This is what occurs in people with autoimmune diseases such as:

multiple sclerosis, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis.

These diseases are treated with drugs that suppress the system.

What you can do to spice up your immune system?

Your system works hard to guard you each day, but there are certain things that  you can do to assist it out:

The idea of boosting your immunity is enticing,

Researchers are exploring the consequences of diet, exercise, age, psychological stress, and other factors on the immune reaction, both in animals and in humans. In the meantime, general healthy-living strategies are an honest way to start giving your system the whip hand.

Healthy ways to strengthen your immune system

Your first line of defense is to Healthy And Active lifestyle

Exercise regularly.

Maintain an Ideal Body composition parameters (weight, fat & muscles ratio)

Take steps to avoid infection, like washing your hands frequently and cooking meats thoroughly.

Try to minimize stress.

Practice good hygiene. Washing your hands regularly can prevent infections.

Eat a Balanced Nutritious diet. Eating nutritious food and staying active will help your body repel infections.

Get enough sleep and manage stress. Sleep deprivation and stress overload increase the hormone cortisol, prolonged elevation of which suppresses immune function.
Avoid tobacco smoke.
Drink less alcohol. Excessive consumption impairs the system and increases vulnerability to lung infections.
Eat many vegetables, fruits, nuts, and seeds, which can provide your body with the nutrients your system needs. {multivitamins }

Consider probiotics. Studies indicate supplements reduce the incidence of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. The gastrointestinal tract is among the most microbiologically active ecosystems that play an important role within the working of the mucosal immune system (MIS). The consumed probiotics stimulate the immune system and induce a network of signals mediated by the entire bacteria or their cell membrane structure

Catch some rays. Sunlight triggers the skin’s production of vitamin D.  10-15 minute exposure of morning sunlight is enough.. Low vitamin D levels correlate with a greater risk of respiratory infection.

Go for the garlic. Garlic is considered as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent and immune booster. Because heat deactivates a key active ingredient, add it to foods just before serving.

Eat medicinal mushrooms, like shiitake and maitake. A recent study showed that a concentrated extract of shiitake enhanced immune function in women with breast cancer

Try immune-supportive herbs. If you get recurrent infections, consider taking immune-supportive herbs like eleuthero (Eleutherococcus senticocus), Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng), American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), or astragalus (A. membranaceus).

Laughter helps your system. The old saying goes that laughter is that the best medicine, and that’s truth. Laughter releases dopamine and other feel-good chemicals within the brain, all of which may help decrease stress.

Twenty minutes of laughter each day might not keep the doctor away, but it may help keep your system working properly.